-- General Information --
Try not to let their moods go too low, they can have a mental break and it can cost you the game if it's during really bad timing.
-- Getting Started --
Check if you started with food, if you didn't, your first priority is to forage berries, mushrooms, pineapples, etc, which are scattered on the map in green biomes.
Build a small shelter with a storage area (zone -> stockpile), nothing too crazy or big though, chop a few trees (try to get close to or mature ones) if you didn't start with wood
Build either a bed or sleeping spot inside of the shelter you made them, they get a lower mood sleeping on the floor or outside.
Somewhere outside near your shelter place a dumping stockpile zone, corpses and stone chunks will go here.
Place a crafting station somewhere in your shelter if you can, outside is fine but there's a speed penalty for working if you do.
Craft a weapon if you do not have one, you'll want to hunt and raids can and will happen at random.
From this point you will want to cut a bit more trees and build them a dining table and chair if you can, also a horseshoes or hoopstone so they don't get bored and get a low mood.
You will want to mine a bit of steel to build a stove (if you have that tech) Otherwise build a campfire with wood, these are to make meals, which make colonists happier and have a higher mood than raw food.
I like to set a bill at the campfire/stove to "make simple meal" and set it for "do until", then in the bill I set the number to (how many colonists I have)*2
Then occassionally monitor the raw food levels like berries and mushrooms, if you run out of enough to make a meal or 2 for each colonist, forage a few more plants
At this point you'll want to place some growing zones, I like to go with rice and berries for food, healroot if your colonist can since this is best done early.
You'll also most likely want to place a growing zone for cotton too, I usually do, however you can also get leather from hunting which is usually quicker in the start.
Try not to make the growing zones too big because then they waste work if the food spoils, and uses up valuable colonist time. Time management is a major factor in this game.
If all is going well and you aren't backed up on work to do, a research bench is a good option, this way you can progress towards better technology!
-- Naked Brutality Tips --
I tend to go for a colonist with shooting, social, and research. Then have them forage for food (plants is a bonus but not a must).
Meanwhile they're doing their basic survival (See Getting Started) while researching techs.
If an NPC is on the screen this is when I use their social skill to try and recruit more colonists.
I'll try to recruit all visitors until I get a couple (which pisses off the faction but who cares when you're this needy).
If I'm raided the shooting skill helps me win the fight, if the enemy doesn't die I'll capture them to a prison room to try and recruit them.
Eventually I gain 2-3 colonists doing this, which allows me to set better work priorities and stop micro managing so much.
Keep in mind, it takes a long time to recruit a prisoner, but no faction relation debuffs
It's faster to recruit a visitor but that can bite you in the ass later, so only do it if you're down to under 3 or so colonists depending on their skills.
Then I'll try and keep them stocked on a couple of bows, clothes, other renewable items that you can get from farming to sell to caravans.
Then when a trade caravan comes by I trade off whatever I don't need or what I crafted just for profit, then either save the silver I earned, or use it to buy something I really really need.
Sometimes you'll get a slave trader to visit and you can either sell them your prisoners, or you can buy a colonist off of them.